Cathy (Xijuan) Zhang

Assistant Professor

Email address(es):

Faculty & School/Dept.

Faculty of Health - Department of Psychology


Ph.D - 2021
University of British Columbia

Selected Publications

Zhang, X., & Savalei, V (2023). An overview of alternative formats to the Likert format: A comment on Wilson et al. (2022). Psychological Methods, In Print. 

Zhang, X. (2023).  How to generate missing data for simulation studies. The Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 19, 100-122,

Zhang, X., Zhou, L., & Savalei, V. (2023). Comparing the psychometric properties of a scale across three Likert and three alternative formats: An application to the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 83, 649-683.

Zhang, X., & Savalei, V. (2023). New computations for RMSEA and CFI following FIML and TS estimation with missing data. Psychological Methods, 28, 263-283

Zhang, X., Astivia, O.L.O., Kroc, E., & Zumbo, B.D. (2022). How to think clearly about Central Limit Theorem. Psychological Methods, Advanced Online Publication.

Zhang, X., & Savalei, V. (2019). Examining the effect of missing data on RMSEA and CFI under the normal theory full information maximum likelihood. Structural Equation Modeling, 27, 219-239.

Zhang, X., Tse, WW-Y., & Savalei, V. (2019). Improved properties of the Big Five Inventory and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in the Expanded format relative to the Likert Format. Frontiers in Psychology, 10:1286.

Zhang, X., & Savalei, V (2018). Investigating the effect of missing data on the population CFI and RMSEA values. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 53, 147.

Zhang, X., Noor, R., & Savalei, V. (2016). Examining the effect of reverse worded items on the factor structure of the Need for Cognition Scale. PLOS ONE 11(6): e0157795.

Zhang, X., & Savalei, V. (2016a). Bootstrapping confidence intervals for fit indices in structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling, 23, 392-408.

Zhang, X., & Savalei, V. (2016b). Improving the factor structure of psychological scales: The Expanded format as an alternative to the Likert scale format. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 76, 357-386.


Quantitative Methods Research Paper Award of the Canadian Psychological Association - 2020


Currently available to supervise graduate students: Yes

Currently taking on work-study students, Graduate Assistants or Volunteers: Yes

Available to supervise undergraduate thesis projects: Yes