Alexandra Rutherford


Locations / Contact Info:

215 Behavioural Science - BSB
Keele Campus
Phone: 416 736 2100
Fax: 416 736 5814

Email address(es):

Web site(s):

Psychology's Feminist Voices
Personal Website

Faculty & School/Dept.

Faculty of Health - Department of Psychology


PhD - 2001
York University

MA - 1995
York University

BSc - 1993
University of Toronto

Selected Publications


Fancher, R. & Rutherford, A. (2017). Pioneers of psychology, 5th Edition. New York: Norton. [4th edition, 2012]

Rutherford, A., Capdevila, R., Undurti, V., & Palmary, I. (Eds.). (2011). Handbook of international feminisms: Perspectives on psychology, women, culture, and rights. New York: Springer.

  • Winner of the 2012 Distinguished Publication Award from the Association for Women in Psychology

Pickren, W. E. & Rutherford, A. (2010). A history of modern psychology in context.  New York: Wiley.

Rutherford, A. (2009). Beyond the box: B. F. Skinner’s technology of behavior from laboratory to life, 1950s-1970s. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.


Fox Lee, S., Rutherford, A. & Pettit, M. (2016). "Functionalism, Darwinism, and the Psychology of Women" as critical feminist history of psychology: Discourse communities and citation practices. Feminism & Psychology, 26, 254-271..

Rutherford, A. (2015). Maintaining masculinity in mid-20th century American psychology: Edwin Boring, scientific eminence, and the “woman problem,” In E. Milam & R. Nye (Eds.), Osiris, 30, 250-271.

Rutherford, A. & Pettit, M. (2015). Feminism and/in/as psychology: The public sciences of sex and gender. History of Psychology, 18, 223-237.

Kim, S. & Rutherford, A. (2015). From seduction to sexism: Feminists challenge the ethics of therapist-client sexual relations in 1970s America. History of Psychology, 18, 283-296.

Rutherford, A., Sheese, K., & Ruck, N. (2015). Feminism and theoretical psychology. In J. Martin, K. Slaney, and J. Sugarman (Eds.), Wiley handbook of theoretical and philosophical psychology (pp. 374-391). New York: Wiley.

Other Research Outputs

Psychology's Feminist Voices

A multimedia internet archive showcasing the women of psychology's past and the diverse voices of contemporary feminist psychologists.
SPSSI Was There

An interactive timeline developed to convey the synergy between science and society through the history of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues.


I Am Psyched! Inspiring Histories, Inspiring Lives: Women of Color in Psychology


A pop-up exhibit developed in collaboration with the Women’s Programs Office of the American Psychological Association and the Cummings Center for the History of Psychology for a special edition of the Smithsonian’s Museum Day Live! initiative on March 12, 2016 during Women’s History Month. Through panels, videos, and interactives, it explores the history of women of color in psychology and how they have used their unique perspectives to advance knowledge and impact society. It is designed to engage girls of color and excite them about careers in the social and behavioral sciences.



History of Science Society

Society for the History of Psychology

Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues

Society for the Psychology of Women

Service/Community Activities

Center for the History of Psychology
Advisory Board Member

Society for the History of Psychology
2013 President


Distinguished Service Award, Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues - 2017

Florence Denmark Distinguished Mentoring Award, Assoc. for Women in Psych. - 2016

Fellow, Canadian Psychological Association - 2016

Distinguished Publication Award, Assoc. for Women in Psych. - 2012

Award of Distinction, Section on Women and Psychology, CPA - 2011


Currently available to supervise graduate students: Yes

Currently taking on work-study students, Graduate Assistants or Volunteers: No

Available to supervise undergraduate thesis projects: No

Current Research

History of women, gender, and feminist activism in psychology; objectivity, advocacy, and activist social science in the 20th century; science and public policy.

Research Projects

Gendering Science: Psychologies of Gender and Gendered Psychologies in the 20th Century
In this project, I investigate how cultures of masculinity, constructions of gender, and the politics of knowledge have affected the scientific and social practices of 20th century psychologists as they sought to define not only the field's subject matter and methods, but the very kind of person a scientist should be. I examine how in the 1970s, sciences of men and women (i.e., the "psychology of men and masculinity" and the "psychology of women") became possible. Finally, I assess whether Psychological science has changed any of the gender ideologies that continue to operate both inside and outside science, and use this investigation to promote public discussion about the relationships among feminism, gender, and science in the 21st century.
Role: Principal Investigator
Year Funded: 2013
Duration: 3
Funded by: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council

Curriculum Vitae (C.V. file):

CV of Alexandra Rutherford